Sunday, April 5, 2015

In Memories: Albert Einstein

On March 14, 1879, was born Albert Einstein: peace and world renowned scientist. In addition to his revolutionary contributions to the advancement of science, was a world citizen with an exemplary civic engagement. Your life worth remembering.  In the last stage of his life, Einstein contributed to a strong new push the pacifist and anti-imperialist movement, internationally, with lasting repercussions. Photograph by Oren Jack Turner, Princeton, NJ Modified with Photoshop by PM_Poon and later by Dantadd. In the last stage of his life, Einstein contributed to a strong new push the pacifist and anti-imperialist movement, internationally, with lasting repercussions. Photograph by Oren Jack Turner, Princeton, NJ Modified with Photoshop by PM_Poon and later by Dantadd.

Einstein was born on March 14, 1879, in Ulm (Germany), a German family, bourgeois and liberal, Jewish ancestry. He attended school in Munich. In 1895, he moved alone to Switzerland. In 1896, he entered the Polytechnic Institute in Zurich (Switzerland), where he graduated in 1900. In 1901, he renounced his German citizenship in order to avoid military service, naturalization is Swiss. In 1902, he began working at the National Patent Office in Bern. At that time, he devoted himself to the study of theoretical physics, obtaining his doctorate in 1905, being the first three theses that anticipated his most important discoveries.

Image by Oren Jack Turner
Einstein was teaching in Bern (1909), the University of Zurich (1910), the Prague University (1911) and the Polytechnic Institute in Zurich. In 1914 he was appointed professor at the University of Berlin and the Prussian Academy of Sciences. He settled in Berlin and regained German citizenship. Three months later, sparked the First World War. Einstein opposed the war from the beginning and denied signing a manifesto of 93 professors in favor of the conflict. A few days later, he wrote an anti-manifesto with the doctor Georg Nikolai (also pacifist), but only managed 4 subscribers. Pacifism of Einstein and his Jewish origin made him unpopular among German nationalists, hostility aggravated by their scientific achievements and his international recognition, especially after the observational confirmation of the theory of general relativity in 1919.

Einstein's political activism grew after the end of World War I, advocating pacifism, nonviolence and international cooperation. In this sense used all platforms, forums and networks of scientific contacts, collaborating with the League of Nations. The '20s was intense civic and scientific activity, punctuated by numerous invitations and trips abroad. In 1922, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for the interpretation of the photoelectric effect. But, finding trip to Japan, did not participate in the award ceremony ceremony. In 1932, Einstein recorded an album entitled "Mein Glaubensbekenntnis" (My Confession). In January 1933, Hitler came to power in Germany. Einstein, Jewish and socialist, was threatened. Was warned by friends and advised to emigrate. He spent six months in Belgium and left for the US in October 1933.

In 1940, Einstein renounced his German citizenship again, if naturalized as an American citizen and was following the developments in Germany and around the world, assuming duties at Princeton University (USA). When the US dropped two atomic bombs against Japan at the end of World War II, Einstein was shocked. When the US dropped two atomic bombs against Japan at the end of World War II, Einstein was shocked. In the last stage of his life, contributed to a strong new push the pacifist and anti-imperialist movement, internationally, with lasting repercussions.

In February 1955, drew up a Manifesto with Bertrand Russell - later signed by Max Born, Percy W. Bridgman, Leopold Infeld, Frederic Joliot-Curie, Herman J. Muller, Linus Pauling, Cecil F. Powell, Joseph Rotblat and Hideki Yukawa - calling for the resignation of the force between the two emerging military-political blocs of the Second World War. These efforts contributed to the subsequent emergence of various pacifist and anti-nuclear movements, and much to the diplomatic successes that led to several anti-nuclear treaties. Einstein died on April 18, 1955, in Princeton (USA). In his will, he donated his scientific estate to Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Furthermore, insisted it was never erected a monument in his memory. His ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location.

By António José André.

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