Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Augustus, the first emperor of Rome

Augustus, the first emperor of Rome
Rome revenge for the Varus disaster was bloody In the year 15. Chr. Devastated Germanicus with a huge army of Germania. It should be finally subjected. He came to the place of the Varus Battle. He suffered a defeat there also? As a popular military leader and prince Nero Claudius Germanicus was (15 V-29 n. Chr.) Was the great white hope of the Julio-Claudian imperial dynasty. The Varus Battle in Kalkriese Museum dedicated to him until 1 November 2015, large-scale exhibition. Sometimes the story spread her favors most unfair. Take the fate of the Roman prince Germanicus. He commanded Rome largest army, the peoples of the Empire lay at his feet. He also wrote world history, with its name but a key trend of Roman politics linked. And who is now reaping the glory? Varus, a bureaucrat and overburdened military who was outwitted by a Germanic subordinates and n in 9. Chr. Life and legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest lost.

This surprising perspective plays an exhibition which will be shown on Saturday at precisely at the place has gone to the memory of the defeat of Varus mission. The company is entitled "I Germanicus. Commander, priest, Superstar" and takes place in the Varus Battle Museum and Park Kalkriese north of Osnabrück. Since here the end of the 1980s, relics of Roman soldiers came to light, archaeologists have uncovered a battlefield, massacred on the Germanic warriors Legionaries. For many researchers, it was the Varus.

But Germanicus fits here. In 15 n. Chr. He should have visited on his vendetta "the accident site" where spilled under the leadership of Arminius Germanic auxiliary troops and tribesmen around 20,000 man destroyed. "In the middle of the open field were the bleached bones scattered or in clusters," says the Roman historian Tacitus. "In a sad mood and at the same time in growing anger" they were buried. Bone Pits the excavators have found just the remains of equipment, which testify to the presence of almost all branches of a legion in Kalkriese.

Who was Germanicus? Under the name of Nero Claudius he was 15 v. Chr. Was born as the son of the elder Drusus and the younger Antonia. Drusus had been introduced from an earlier connection of Livia in marriage to the Emperor Augustus. Antonia was a daughter of his sister Octavia with Mark Antony, the partners and rivals for power. Thus Nero Claudius was also great-nephew and step-grandson of the emperor.

Augustus, the first emperor of Rome

Complicated family relationships
But that's not all. After several designated heirs (including Drusus) survived, Augustus adopted 4. n. Chr. Drusus' brother Tiberius, forcing him in turn to accept his nephew as a son instead and to determine to succeed. This also meant that Tiberius had to give up the rights of his own son. Thus Nero Claudius had also become a grandson of the Emperor. From his father he had also inherited the honorary title Germanicus because Drusus had laid with numerous campaigns, the foundations for the integration into the Kingdom of Germania.

Augustus, the first emperor of Rome
This complicated family relationships, which are also testimonies of the subtle architecture of Augustus' reign, shows off the exhibition on 25 portrait busts of the parties, the loans gathered by the British Museum to the Louvre. It was not love that bound them together, members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, but the struggle for power. Of the six children of Germanicus, who survived the childhood, died five violent deaths. This included the future Emperor Caligula and Agrippina, the mother of Emperor Nero. Who was married to Emperor Claudius, brother of Germanicus, that her uncle, and is said to have poisoned him. So much for dealing in this human slaughterhouse.

The temptations to which they were exposed to it, Germanicus was 14 n. Chr. The death of Augustus confronted. When the unpopular Tiberius took the heritage, whose adopted son was proclaimed emperor by the legions. Germanicus remained loyal to the new ruler and beat down the revolt. But Tiberius will hardly have forgotten who has been subject to that of sympathy of the troops.

At that time, Germanicus had been the empire (command) on the Rhine and prepared to invade. The extinction of the Marsi in 14 led the Germans just how Rome intended to wipe out the disgrace of the Varus disaster. With eight legions together with auxiliary troops, about 90,000 men, one third of the Roman army, it began the large-scale attack in the year.

The declared aim was the destruction of Arminius and his coalition. Although coincided with Thusnelda the pregnant woman of Arminius in the hands of the Romans, who were able to win two Legion Eagle of Varus. But a resounding success failed to materialize.

Probably operated Varus with his legions between the Rhine and Weser. Germanicus and his general Caecina crossed larger areas. But one of its main bases will have been holders / Aliso. The question is whether Caecina beat the battle of the "Long Bridge" in Kalkriese or whether there Varus has come to an end.

Augustus, the first emperor of Rome
Probably operated Varus with his legions between the Rhine and Weser. Germanicus and his general Caecina crossed larger areas. But one of its main bases will have been holders / Aliso. The question is whether Caecina beat the battle of the "Long Bridge" in Kalkriese or whether there Varus has come to an end For increased losses, especially as a troop transport ended with the fleet in a disaster. At the "Long Bridge" came four legions into an ambush, in which the convoy and thousands of men were lost. The logistical effort was enormous, the opponent relied on guerrilla tactics and cleverly eluded the superior war machine of Rome.

At the end of 15 approved Tiberius therefore his general a triumph in Rome, which was synonymous with the invitation to return. But this time Germanicus defied. He was burning with ambition to follow its programmatic name acts, and put it all on one card. Instead of as previously to pacify the country with the strategy of scorched earth, he now sought in two battles the decision in vain. Historians estimate that the losses of Germanicus were as large as that of all previous campaigns - including the Varus.

The emperor became clear. It was enough of success, enough of the failures. He also reproached him for the visit of the Varus Battle field and the burial of the bones. With the sight of the wounded he had weakened his army in his fighting spirit and also violated his duties as Augur. For holders of this priestly ministry, it is barred from attending a Funeral. Pride you show in the exhibition a number of Augur-rods from the holdings of Roman troops who came in Kalkriese to light.

The surviving of Tacitus allegations weighed heavily, hid behind but the blatant threat of a treason process. Germanicus recognized the signs and returned. Among the highlights of the exhibition include a scabbard from the British Museum. Then Germanicus is displayed, a Victoria, a goddess of victory handed to Caesar. So the action was presented to the public.

Then Tiberius sent the prince to large inspection tour to the East. There, Germanicus freedoms took out that only the Emperor states - as he traveled all over Egypt, which was forbidden to enter aristocrats. On mysteriously BC he is 19 n. Died. In Antioch. It was whispered by poison. For familial entanglements said at least the fact that Tiberius could explain the two eldest sons of Germanicus enemies of the state and taken into custody. Both of them did not survive.

Who fought really at Kalkriese?

In addition to fame and tragedy of Germanicus dedicated the show depth of warfare Rome. But this is a question touching that accompany the excavations in Kalkriese for years. Was it not soldiers of Varus, who died here in the battle against the Germans, but Legionaries of Germanicus? Is Kalkriese even identical to the "Long Bridge", which could overcome the four legions with good luck?

At this point comes the big military camp of Haltern into play, which is identified by many researchers now with Aliso. From this base report the sources that he had resisted the only the great revolt against Varus.

Roman pottery kiln with the bones of Germans in the LWL Roman Museum in Haltern. An important argument for the interpretation of holders is the discovery of a Roman pottery kiln, in which found the bones of 24 people and a dog. Strontium isotope investigations of the teeth prove a source of dead from Westphalia, the Black Forest and Bohemian. It must therefore be traded to fallen Germans that were disposed of by the victorious Romans in a pragmatic way. This allows the identification of Haltern with Aliso.

Important for the dating of Kalkriese but is another observation: The youngest of the numerous coins found there date back series that were not minted after 9. Some still bear the stamp of Varus. From this it has been concluded that it was his soldiers who died there with their pay in his pocket.

The question is: How long will the pay of legionaries was paid in coins from the time of Varus? This is also true for holders / Aliso. From this camp is narrated that the Romans first tasks after successfully defending, but it was expanded by Germanicus as a logistical base for his campaign again. There, too, it has been discovered only coins from series from the time of Varus. But that falls off a central argument for the dating of Kalkriese. Under Roman legionaries apparently circulated no younger coins.

Conversely confirm the bone pits, which were discovered in Kalkriese, the report of Tacitus from the funeral of Varus-dead by Germanicus. That the bones come only from a few individuals, explains exhibition curator Stefan Burmeister with the acidic soil at the site. Only where came by chance limestones between the bone, the pH content of the soil has been turned so far into the basic range that they survived the times and have not been destroyed by acid.

The research promises to be exciting. With a thesis exhibition is an important exclamation mark. Not the Varus disaster prompted Rome to a change in his Germania policy, but the disproportion between tremendous effort and manageable success of Germanicus campaign. What was planned as a war of aggression, was issued at the end of a successful vendetta. Germania beyond the Rhine should be free and leave his quarrels. How right Tiberius had with this turn, shows the fate of Arminius. His coalition fell apart. In 21 he was assassinated by members of his family.

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