Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Soffiati Ancient Geography

Soffiati Ancient Geography
Photo source; robertomoraes.com.br
Soffiati in new article deals with the ancient geography of the region with emphasis on the Paraíba do Sul River Check below another historian of the article, researcher and environmentalist Aristides Soffiati. In the email sent to detail to the article, he explained some of the reasons that justify their development. So, I take the liberty to give disclosure to the full article:

"Several people have asked me about the ancient geography of the region. I think until the geography and history courses could think about creating a new discipline called historical geography and geographical history."

By leaving the mountainous area Itereré, Rio Paraíba passes to run a fluvial plain that he helped build associated to the sea. This colossal plain surpasses all works built by Western hand. Of all downloaded the State of Rio de Janeiro, the northern Rio de Janeiro is the most distinctive in relation to the plains of Sepetiba, Barra da Tijuca, Guanabara Bay and the Lakes Region.

First, is the largest of all. It is significant, in it, the distance between the mountainous area and the sea. For this reason, the waters coming from the mountains linger more in the Baixada Fluminense North. If the plain was narrow as the Sepetiba and Barra da Tijuca, the water from the high parts but quickly come to the sea. If it was so close to high mountains, as in the Guanabara Bay, the heavy rains pouring water would run into the sea, not having the time or conditions conducive to infiltrate the ground, especially after the intense urbanization surrounding the Guanabara Bay.

Even in extraordinary floods, rivers of waters overflowing from their beds and are porous ground to infiltrate. Even without overflow, is suspected since 1819, the Paraíba do Sul waters feed the water table, especially the right margin, lower than the normal level of Paraíba do Sul River. This means that, in full, the waters overflowed by this margin did not return more to the river when the standardization level. José Carneiro da Silva throws this hypothesis in 1819. Luís Henrique de Bellegarde Niemeyer confirms the hypothesis. The sanitary engineer Francisco Saturnino Rodrigues de Brito confirms more technical elements the hypothetical link the Paraíba do Sul River With Ugly Lagoon, in the 1920s.

In 1969 a macroproject Engineering Gallioli commissioned by the National Department of Works and Sanitation notes that the water evaporated from the pond Ugly surpassed in m³ water received by Macabu Rios, Silver, Ururaí and stumps Canal, the main contributors to the large lagoon ecosystem . Engineers wondered then why the Lagoon Ugly not dried, the volume of water lost by evaporation and by Arrow Canal was higher than the volume received by the tax. The answer was to confirm the underground connection of the Paraíba do Sul River With Ugly Lagoon. To my knowledge, however, measuring the volume of water flowing in the water table as far as the evaporation content of aquatic ecosystems, were never made. If not, should be performed by any public research institution.

It is important to this kind of knowledge in a region traditionally soaked in water for long stay her and that transits of a super-humid regime for a scheme in this semiarid region. If the studies are focused on the right bank, on the left bank they are scarce. Hildebrando de Araujo Goes delimits the Baixada camper between the right bank of the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul to the left bank of the river Macaé. In a more strict demarcation, the salt marshes of the Paraíba do Sul extends to the vicinity of Manguinhos, the left bank of the Paraiba do Sul River. On the other hand, the board units in Quissamã and San Francisco Itabapoana have intrinsic link with the plain fluviomarinha.

Thus expanding the plain, the left bank of the Paraiba do Sul should also be considered as an area of ​​influence of the great river. Even if the water entering the water table is slower in land board, no doubt it exists. But here too there are few studies.

There is also a unique feature of the plain Goytacazes: it borders directly with the open sea, without the mediation of a gulf, a bay, a coastal lagoon and rocky formations. In Sepetiba Plain, the rivers that drain are small and flow into a large bay protected by Long Restinga of Marambaia. In Plain da Tijuca, also the streams have low flow and are intercepted by elongated ponds that reach the sea by the protected Channel Joatinga. Surrounding the Guanabara Bay, the small rivers of their surroundings, that descend from the mountain area, landed the bayside and formed a thin plain. Originally, the water poured by these rivers is intercepted by the bay, which communicates with the open sea flanked by a massive rocky formations channel. With heavy rains, the rivers are small, overflow and run-shaped stream of the bay. They have become destructive to the intense process of urbanization, the silted up and is blocking their beds with sewage, garbage and construction. In turn, the plain of the Lakes Region is drained by several small rivers that flow into elongated parallel to the coast saline ponds, and the water drained to the sea by Itajuru Channel in Araruama Lagoon.

Have the coast between the left bank of the Macaé River and the right bank of the Rio Itapemirim is new, homeless, without recesses protected by rocky formations, shallow and swept by ocean currents high energy. The natural channels with considerable flow can maintain the open bar, as is the case of Rios Itapemirim, Itabapoana, Guaxindiba, Paraíba do Sul and Macaé. Moreover, the largest fluvial plain of the state is drained by the Paraíba do Sul, also the longest river in the state. Now, the small watercourses, the sea always tends to seal their bars. The same occurs with artificial channels, such as the Leaky Vala and the Channel Jagoroaba and Arrow. The latter required the extension of the mouth into the sea by two stone piers, foreign material to the environment and has led to the accumulation of sand on the right side and erosion on the left. Everything indicates that the channel open for the installation of a large shipyard within the continent in Port Complex Logistics Industrial Açu is also causing erosion phenomena on the beaches south of the complex.

In groundwater of the Plain of Goytacazes is lot of salt and dissolved iron, even indicators of alluvial formation and navy plain. At certain points, is the sea in the water contained underground. Likewise, the plain edges of the subsurface have invaded by seawater. A study of Gallioli Engineering, 1969, commissioned by the National Department of Works and Sanitation, concluded that the saline tongue reaches the midway between the coastline and the Ugly Lagoon. The report's recommendation was to keep the DNOS Within Lagoon, part of the complex Lagoon Ugly, so that the weight of her freshwater halt the advance of underground saline language. Another issues that deserve further study.

The Baixada dos Goytacazes thus resembled a large cistern that received mountain water for Rivers Paraíba do Sul, Macabu, Imbé and Black, and rainwater. In large part, this water seeped into the soil and accumulated in the water table. A calculation estimated by Alberto Ribeiro Lamego, the crystalline basement, this lowered, lies 800 meters from the surface. So much mixture of earth built up with water, as if the plain was even a large pool full of dirt and water, both entering through pipes from the mountains and sea, and the water level exceeds the level soil. This exceeded corresponded to the lakes and rivers.

Of course, this huge volume of water coming from rivers serranos, and infiltrate the ground, ran lightly. In the time of the floods, the rivers overflowed and filled the ponds. In the particular case of the Paraíba do Sul River, the waters overflowed the right bank, finding obstacles, went out into the lagoons and not returned to the bed as their standard level. The floods were much more predictable. From time to time, there were floods more intense or less intense anomalous. The anomalous filled short of the standard should not affect the amount of water, although the Seven Captains, founders of a continuous European settlement in the region, have found a pond with a little water and a lot of dead fish rotting, which was named Smelly Pond in Restinga Jurubatiba. The military cartographer Manoel Martins Couto Reis recorded in 1785, that during the drought dried up the lakes and it was not until the rainy season to map them. This season occurred distinct phenomenon: the water was such that the ponds were connected, surpassing the low dividers water.

When the industrial sugar park was modernized in the late nineteenth to the twentieth century, the need for cane aumentou.Com it, so has the need for land, since productivity was low. It turns out that the most fertile land was under water. So, was established in 1933 by centralizing and interventionist government of Getúlio Vargas, the Sanitation Committee of Baixada Fluminense, with a mission to drain the water and then considered disciplinary foci of acute and chronic diseases. In 1934, Hildebrand engineer Araujo Goes published a courageous report showing all previous efforts failed to tame the waters and made more effective solutions. For the Baixada dos Goytacazes, he adopted the reorganization plan of Francis Saturnino Rodrigues de Brito.

In five years of work, the Sanitation Committee of Baixada Fluminense fared so well in dry low-lying areas that was transformed into the National Department of Works and Sanitation in 1940 and now operates throughout Brazil.

The natural water supply that engineers found in the Baixada dos Goytacazes was very intricate and they looked a mess. The Paraíba do Sul River is the major route which in the plain training, forked into two subsystems: the river itself and the subsystem of Ugly Lagoon, which captured the Rivers Macabu, Vulture, Imbé and Black, beyond the pond up. This formed by the rivers Vulture and Imbé, began to flow out by Ururaí River, which received the Rio Cacumanga, from the Paraíba do Sul River, and emptied into the Ugly Lagoon. This defluia the sea by countless arms who gathered in the Iguaçu River. This received Cula stream of water, one of four in which divided the Paraiba do Sul in the delta. This river also broke a natural channel near the sandbank which is still known as Rio Doce or Black Water. He also emptied into the Iguaçu River, which flowed into the sea.


The left bank of the Paraiba do Sul was more stable. Her, reached the Paraíba do Sul River Muriaé, the Alligator Canal connecting the great river to Lagoa das Pedras, the Stream of Cathay, which connects the Lagoa do Campelo, and the Cacimbas Channel. Both the Commission and the DNOS gave more attention to the right bank of the river, more subject to floods and where stands Campos. Based on the Saturnino de Brito plan, three instruments were used: the dam, canal and locks. New levees were designed to complement the existing old, to wall up the overflow of water. After eight primary channels between the Paraíba do Sul subsystem and the subsystem Lagoon Ugly. The purpose of these channels was split full of water to easily drain, them to the sea. Today's engineers have forgotten the original purpose of constructed channels. In the junction channel with the river, designed to manageable construction or automatic gates for controlling the transfer of water to the subsystem pond ugly.

There was only an issue already raised by Alberto Ribeiro Lamego: how to transfer fresh water floods into the sea? The rivers Paraíba do Sul and Iguaçu much as Ditch the Leaky were insufficient by engineers. Then took a mooted solution by Saturnino de Brito, although simplified by the body: on the Ugly Lagoon to the sea by Channel Arrow. Also the bed of the Ugly Lagoon was torn by three channels, but the DNOS could not get to the end resistance of Ponta Grossa fishermen knights. Other minor works and maintenance have not been implemented because the DNOS was abolished in 1990.

For drainage, the left bank of the Paraiba do Sul has been less problematic because it is slightly higher than the average level of the river. The floods and the overflow feed the ponds the left side. When the level normalizes, the waters gradually descend to the river. There are fewer studies for the left margin. The latest writings of Saturnino de Brito refer to it, but without much detail. He conceived a much away dike that the current to include the lagoons between it and the river. Brito considered these ponds of fundamental importance to cushion the impact of the floods. Also designed a large and expensive parallel channel to the Paraíba do Sul, starting in Campos and opening at sea.

Regarding the dike, Camilo de Menezes, DNOS engineer, defended the construction on the bank, excluding the ponds. The brothers Coimbra Bueno, owners of a city planning office and formulated a development plan for Campo in 1944, resumed the design of Saturnino de Brito, but not advocating a continuous channel, but a channel that take advantage of the numerous ponds. The Gallioli engineering also defended this position, although judging it too expensive.

The solution found by DNOS was much simpler. The Cataia stream was virtually disabled by it, with a battery of automatic gates were closed when the Paraíba do Sul rose and opened when it normalized their level. In the vicinity of the city of Campos, was torn the Channel Vicar, taking advantage of the Channel Nogueira, opened in the nineteenth century to connect the Paraíba do Sul to Campelo lagoon with navigation. Because it is expensive work, he was not finished. Turning the river to Lagoa do Campelo and this overboard by Canal Engineer Antonio Resende, the DNOS replaced the Grand Canal planned by Saturnino de Brito. But DNOS system never worked satisfactorily.

So for this article I have ever goes away, the question remains. Where did the colossal amount of water accumulated in the Plain of Goytacazes? As we come to the current water crisis? The answers are for another time.
Written by; Roberto Moraes - robertomoraes.com.br

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